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邏輯主語

編輯 鎖定
邏輯主語,是指與動詞在邏輯上存在着主謂關係,即語義上的施動者,代表着動作系統的發出者。
中文名
邏輯主語
概    念
動詞所對應動作的施動者
應用範圍
語言

邏輯主語定義

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動詞在一個整句中充當某一個成分——謂語動詞主語、謂語的賓語、修飾成分(定語狀語補語)時,表達一個動作的概念,描述一個具有一定動機和目的並指向一定客體的運動系統動作系統不是孤立的,即不存在沒有源頭的動作,對於每個動作,都有對應的主體(發出者)。動詞代表的動作系統中的主體,即施動者,稱作這個動詞的邏輯主語
同樣地,動詞代表動作系統中的客體,即受動者,稱作這個動詞的邏輯賓語

邏輯主語邏輯主語與語法主語

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語法主語即在一個句子,在語法上作主語部分。邏輯主語不同於語法主語,但兩者並不對立。
邏輯主語代表着動作系統的發出者,語法主語則決定了謂語動詞的時態語態。語法主語在語法結構上和謂語構成主謂結構,但在邏輯上它們可以是謂語動詞動作系統的受動者,也可以是謂語動詞動作系統的施動者。當語法主語和謂語動詞是主動關係時,語法主語即是邏輯主語;當語法主語和謂語動詞是被動關係時,語法主語是謂語動詞的邏輯賓語
觀察下列句子:
  1. Our child planted a tree.(我們的孩子植了棵樹。)
  2. A tree was planted by our child.(一棵樹被我們孩子植了。)
兩個表達中,植樹這個動作都是由“our child”發出的,故謂語部分動詞的邏輯主語都是“our child”。但他們的語法主語不同:第一句是“Our child”,而第二句是“A tree”。
在表述中,有時強調動作本身,常常把邏輯主語變位作其他成分(介詞賓語等)或者省略,構成“祈使句”、“被動句”等結構。
觀察下列句子:
  1. Promise(邏輯主語:you) yourself to be so strong that nothing can disturb(邏輯主語:nothing) your peace of mind.(答應你自己努力變得堅強,直到任何事情都不會擾亂你內心的平靜。)【祈使句因對象(即主語)是第二人稱,所以通常都省略。】
  2. The eastern sky was barred(邏輯主語: grey clouds) with grey clouds.(東邊的天覆滿了烏雲。)【被動語態】
  3. Over head was(邏輯主語: a grey expanse of cloud) a grey expanse of cloud, slightly stirred(邏輯主語:a breeze), however, by a breeze; so that a gleam of flickering(邏輯主語: sunshine)sunshine might now and then be seen(邏輯主語: people) at its solitary play(邏輯主語: sunshine) along the path.(頭上是灰濛濛的雲天,時而被微風輕拂;因而不時可見縷縷陽光,孤寂地在小徑上閃爍跳躍。)【本句話較長,分號前主體部分為Over head was a grey expanse of cloud(完全倒裝句);slightly stirred by a breeze為狀語。分號後flickering作sunshine的定語;be seen意為被(人們)看見,by people省略;play為名詞,作at的賓語,its指代sunshine's。】
本詞條下將劃分出幾個結構用以加深理解。

邏輯主語謂語動詞動詞主動態與被動態的邏輯主語

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邏輯主語動詞主動態的句子或分句

主動語態是表示主語是謂語動詞動作的使動方的語態。在主動語態中,謂語動詞的動作源自主語,而施加於賓語。
由此,在動詞主動態的句子或分句中,語法主語是此句子或分句的施動者(邏輯主語)。
觀察下列句子:
  1. We swept the floor.
  2. He wrote a letter.
  3. The boy broke the glass.
  4. Don't smoke here.
  5. With great power comes great responsibility.
  6. There was an idea, to bring together a group of remarkable people, to see if we could become something more.
在主動態4,5和6中,4應用了祈使句,5應用了倒裝句,6應用了存在句。祈使句中動詞的邏輯主語是被施加命令的人;而倒裝句是恢復語序後語法主語;在存在句中,開頭的there實質上是形式主語。

邏輯主語動詞被動態的句子或分句

被動語態是一種語態,可以直觀的表明主語謂語動詞之間的被動關係。被動語態表示主語是受動者。一般説來,當強調動作的受動者而不強調或不明確施動者時,多用被動語態。
由此,在動詞被動態的句子或分句中,語法主語是受動者(邏輯賓語),而介詞by後的名詞或者代詞(性分句)是施動者(邏輯主語)。 觀察例句:
  1. The floor was swept.地板打掃了。
  2. The letter was written by him.這封信是他寫的。
  3. The glass was broken by the boy.杯子被那個男孩打破了。
  4. English is spoken by many people in the world.世界上許多人説英語。
  5. Knives are used for cutting things.刀用來切東西。
  6. The work has been done.這個工作做完了。
在被動態1,5和6中,他們的邏輯主語不需要強調,故施動者沒有在句子中體現。比如對於1,句子強調的主體是“地是乾淨的,有人打掃了它”,邏輯主語可以是任何一個人。

邏輯主語非謂語動詞的邏輯主語

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邏輯主語不定式分句

  1. 不定式分句作狀語和定語
不定式分句在句子中作狀語等修飾成分時,其邏輯主語是主句的語法主語:
  1. He opened the door to let kids in.
  2. He hurried home to fine his mother wasn't home.
  3. The boy was lost,never to be found again.
  4. He has much homework to do today.
  5. We have a very distinguished guest to attend our party.
  6. He is always the first to come and the last to leave.
二、不定式的複合結構(賓語複合結構),不定式作主語、同位語或賓語補足語
不定式分句構成賓語複合結構(有時被指示代詞it代替)時,介詞for或of的賓語是不定式的邏輯主語:
  1. She fetched several bottlesfor Harry to use.
  2. It's so kind of you to help me.
  3. For a childto learn everything within 10 years is impossible. =It's impossiblefor a childto learn everything within 10 years.
  4. The article is too difficultfor me to understand.
  5. The orderfor themto climb the mountain was given.
  6. The Internet made it possible for us to contact with relatives miles away.
不定式分句作主語,不存在of/for + 介詞賓語的結構修飾不定式分句時,其邏輯主語不定,這類句子通常用於給出建議、陳述觀點,邏輯主語是聽到的人。
  1. To seeis to believe. 百聞不如一見。
  2. To do morning exerciseis good for our health. 做早操有利於我們的健康。
  3. It is unwise to give the children whatever they want. 孩子想要什麼就滿足是不明智的。
三、不定式分句作間接賓語
不定式分句在句子中作間接賓語:
  1. My mother asked meto wash the clothes.
  2. I consider him to be the best candidate.
  3. The teacher told him to come on time.
  4. Edison’s mother taught himto read and write.
  5. They are believed to have discussed the problem. 
  6. Thousands were reported to be working in concentration camps. 
  7. He is thought to be hiding in the woods. 
  8. My mother wouldn’t let mego to the film.
  9. I don’t like milk, but mother made me drink it.
  10. I would have him wait for me at the gate of the park.
  11. I watched her get into the car.
  12. I saw the womanenter a bank.
  13. We often hear her sing this song.
  14. Did you notice her leave the house?
四、不定式分句作及物動詞賓語
不定式分句在句子中作及物動詞的賓語,邏輯主語是主句的邏輯主語:
  1. I agreed to support him.
  2. He said he wanted to be a professor.

邏輯主語過去分句

一、過去分詞分句作狀語和定語
過去分詞分句作定語和狀語,句子或分句的語法主語是分詞的邏輯賓語,而邏輯主語一般省略或用介詞by以介詞賓語的形式被引導:
  1. Moved to tears by her, he stood there silently.
  2. Grown in rich soil, these seeds can grow fast.
  3. He was all wet caught in a heavy rain.
  4. Seen from the top of the hill,the city looks more beautiful to us.
  5. The new product finally passed therequiredtest.
  6. There are manybeautifully decoratedhouses in this rich area.
  7. The manfollowed by security guardsis our chairman.
二、過去分詞分句賓語補足語
過去分詞分句作賓語補足語,句子或分句的語法主語是分詞的邏輯賓語,介詞for或of的賓語是過去分詞的邏輯主語:
  1. I heard the song sung by a girl in English.
  2. I'll have my hair cut tomorrow.
  3. Don't leave those things undone.

邏輯主語-ing分句

一、-ing分句作狀語和定語
-ing分詞及其短語作狀語,其邏輯主語是句子或分句的語法主語;-ing分詞及其短語作定語語,其邏輯主語是其所修飾的名詞;
  1. Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy.
  2. Falling water can be used to generate electricity.
二、-ing分詞分句作賓語補足語
-ing分詞及其短語作賓語補足語,句子或分句的邏輯主語是句子中的語法賓語。
Can you hear her singingthe song in the next room?
三、名詞化的-ing分詞
名詞化的ing分詞(動名詞)的;邏輯主語可以跟從句子或分句語法主語;但同時也可以附加邏輯主語,即在分詞前加代詞賓格或形容詞性物主代詞
  1. His being frightened makes us aware of the danger.
  2. Would you mind me opening the window?

邏輯主語邏輯主語的判定:直接與附加邏輯主語

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注意:這一部分不同於與上文中動詞作各個成分的對應分析,此部分並不與上文衝突,只是提供了一種判定的思路。

邏輯主語直接邏輯主語

如果邏輯主語不言自明,非謂語動詞將借用。
一、句中的主語
  1. He admitted (his) taking the money.⇔ He admittedtaking the money. 他承認(他)拿了那筆錢。
  2. After (his) Finishing his work, he went to bed immediately.⇔After Finishing his work, he went to bed immediately.完成工作後他立即上牀睡覺。
上述句子中,非謂語動詞和主要動詞都是由句子的主語he支配的,所以本句非謂語動詞的邏輯主語就是句子主語He,無需添加him或his來充當taking的邏輯主語。
二、句中的主語及上下文中提及的其他名詞
I don’t anticipate meeting any opposition. 我不期待(我以及你們)遇到任何敵對行為。
本句中,非謂語動詞meeting邏輯主語既包括句中的主語説話者I也包括上下文中的聽話者。
三、句中的主語及有關的其他名詞
Mother suggests having a picnic party this weekend. 母親建議週末舉辦一次野餐會。
本句中,非謂語動詞having的邏輯主語既是句子的主語也包括舉辦party的有關人員。

邏輯主語附加邏輯主語

如果邏輯主語在句中、上下文及周圍環境並不存在,就需要另加。否則會表意不明,構成垂懸結構
一、動名詞的邏輯主語:所有格+ doing sth.
帶有邏輯主語的動名詞稱為動名詞的複合結構。當動名詞的邏輯主語與句子的主語不一致時,要在動名詞之前加上物主代詞名詞所有格,這便構成了複合結構
物主代詞(名詞所有格)是邏輯上的主語,動名詞是邏輯上的謂語。動名詞複合結構在句中可作主語、賓語、表語等,分別相當於對應的名詞性分句。由於-ing分詞中可以轉化為名詞,所以要用物主代詞充當其邏輯主語,做賓語時也可以用代詞的賓格取代。
  1. He suggested her applying for a multiple entry visa. 他建議她申請一個多用入關簽證。
  2. They insisted on my/me finishing the report before Friday. 他們堅持我在星期五之前完成這份報告。
  3. It is no good her keeping smoking all the time. 她總是不斷地吸煙是沒有好處的。
  4. Jane’s being careless caused so much trouble. 簡的粗心惹來了不少麻煩。⇔That Jane was careless caused so much trouble.
  5. What’s troubling them is their not having enough food. 煩擾他們的是食物不足。⇔What’s troubling them is that they have not enough food.
二、分詞的邏輯主語:主格+ doing sth.
分詞的邏輯主語要用名詞的主格充當及其邏輯主語,構成的短語也叫做獨立主格結構
  1. The boy finishing his work, his mother allowed him to play a short while. 那孩子寫完作業後他媽媽允許他玩兒一小會兒。
  2. The baby was sleeping soundly, the nurse sitting beside the bed silently.嬰兒睡得十分香甜,保姆靜靜地坐在一旁。
  3. They ordering him to do it, he had no choice but to obey them. 因為他們命令他做這件事,他別無選擇只能服從。

邏輯主語實際考察形式

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  1. ______________ in order to improve her English.A. Some tapes are bought by Mary.  B.Mary bought some tapes.  C.Mary's dad bought Mary some tapes.
  2. Cleaning the window, ________________.  A. my finger was hurt by sharp glass.  B.sharp glass hurt my finger.  C.I hurt my finger.