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獨立主格結構

編輯 鎖定
獨立主格結構(Absolute Construction)是一種英語句式,由兩部分組成,前一部分是名詞或者代詞,後一部分是非謂語動詞(不定式、現在分詞、過去分詞)或形容詞、副詞、名詞或介詞短語。前後兩部分具有邏輯主謂關係。
在英語中,謂語只能是動詞,不是謂語的動詞全部改成非謂語動詞。獨立主格結構在句中作狀語,多用於書面語。 獨立主格結構本身不是句子,在句子中作狀語,表時間、原因、條件、伴隨、目的及狀態等。
中文名
獨立主格結構
外文名
Absolute Construction
應    用
謂語動詞狀語
結構稱
“獨立結構”

獨立主格結構詳細簡介

編輯
謂語動詞狀語,其邏輯主語須與主句主語保持一致。若不一致,非謂語動詞形式須另帶主語,從而構成複合結構的形式作狀語。這種結構稱為“獨立結構”。其中,非謂語動詞主動用現在分詞,被動用過去分詞

獨立主格結構功能

編輯
獨立主格結構主要用於描繪性文字中,其作用相當於一個狀語從句,常用來表示時間、原因、條件、行為方式或伴隨情況等。例如:

獨立主格結構表示時間

The meeting being over, all of us went home. 開完會後我們都回家了。
Her work done, she sat down for a cup of tea. 她幹完了活,坐下來喝茶。

獨立主格結構表示條件

The condition being favourable, he may succeed. 如果條件有利,他或許能成功。

獨立主格結構表示原因

There being no taxis, we had to walk. 沒有出租車,我們只好步行。
He wrapped her up with great care,the night being dark and frosty. 夜又黑又冷,所以他把她裹得嚴嚴實實的。
In the middle of February,the weather being favorable for work,the workers began to repair and secure the dam of the river.二月中旬,天氣有利於工作,工人們開始修繕河壩。

獨立主格結構表示伴隨情況

Almost all metals are good conductors,silver being the best of all. 幾乎所有的金屬都是良導體,而銀則是最好的導體。(=Almost all metals are good conductors, and silver is the best of all.)

獨立主格結構用法

編輯
獨立主格結構主要表示謂語動詞發生的時間、原因、條件或伴隨情況等,相當於一個狀語從句並列句

獨立主格結構用作時間狀語

The work done(After the work had been done), we went home. 工作完成後,我們就回家了。

獨立主格結構用作條件狀語

Weather permitting(=If weather permits), they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow. 如果天氣允許的話,他們將在明天組織一次海濱小遊。

獨立主格結構用作原因狀語

An important lecture to be given tomorrow(=As an important lecture will be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night. 因為明天要發表一個重要的演講,教授不得不熬夜到很晚。

獨立主格結構用作伴隨狀語

He was lying on the grass,his hands crossed under his head(=and his hands were crossed under his head).他躺在草地上,將兩手交叉枕在腦後。

獨立主格結構用作補充説明

We redoubled our efforts,each man working like two. 我們加倍努力,一個人幹兩個人的活。
*注:獨立主格結構表示時間、條件或原因時,相當於一個狀語從句,一般放在句首,表示原因時還可放在句末;表伴隨狀況或補充説明時,相當於一個並列句,通常放於句末。

獨立主格結構形式

編輯
一般獨立主格形式
與主句邏輯關係鬆散,形式為:
n/代詞+分詞 (-ing 、-ed )形式; n. +不定式; n. +介詞短語; n. +形容詞; n. +副詞;
-名詞/主格代詞+現在分詞
名詞/主格代詞現在分詞之間是主動關係。(表示主動和正在進行)
如:
The girl staring at him(= As the girl stared at him), he didn't know what to say. 姑娘兩眼望着他,他不知道説什麼好。
Time permitting(= If time permits), we will go for an outing tomorrow. 如果時間允許的話,我們明天去郊遊。
-名詞/主格代詞+過去分詞(表示被動和已完成)
名詞/主格代詞與過去分詞之間是被動關係。
如:
The problems solved(= As the problems were solved), the quality has been improved. 隨着問題的解決,質量已經提高了。
Her glasses broken(= Because her glasses were broken), she couldn't see the words on the blackboard. 由於眼鏡摔壞了,她看不見黑板上的字。
-名詞/主格代詞+不定式(表示將要發生的動作)
名詞/主格代詞與不定式之間是主動關係,且強調的是一次具體性的動作。
如:
He is going to make a model plane,some old parts to help. 藉助於一些舊零件,他要做一個飛機模型。
They said good-bye to each other,one to go home, the other to go to the bookstore. 他們道別後,一個回了家,一個去了書店。
-名詞/主格代詞+形容詞(常用來説明名詞或代詞的性質,特徵或所處的狀態)
如:
An air accident happened to the plane,nobody alive. 那架飛機遭遇了空難,無一人生還。
So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off. 這麼多人缺席,會議不得不取消。
-名詞/主格代詞+副詞(常用來説明名詞或代詞的性質,特徵或所處的狀態)
如:
He put on his sweater ,wrong side out. 他把毛衣穿反了。
The meeting over, they all went home. 會議一結束,他們就都回家了。
-名詞/主格代詞+介詞短語(常用來説明名詞或代詞的性質,特徵或所處的狀態)
如:
The boy goes to the classroom,book in hand. 那男孩手裏拿着書去教室。
Mary was sitting near the fire, with her back towards the door.瑪麗靠近火爐坐着,背對着門。
-名詞/主格代詞+名詞
His first shot failure,he fired again.
他第一槍沒擊中,又打了一槍。
Two hundred people died in the accident, many of them children.
兩百人死於事故,其中有許多兒童。
- with 引導的獨立主格:與主句邏輯關係緊密
形式為: with + n. + -ed/-ing形式; with + n. +adj.; with +n. +介詞短語
with ( without)+賓語(名詞/代詞)+賓語補足語,賓語通常由名詞或代詞充當,但代詞一定要用賓格。上文的獨立主格結構的幾種情況都適用於此結構。
The girl hid her box without anyone knowing where it was.
小女孩把盒子藏了起來,沒有人知道它在哪裏。(without +名詞/代詞+動詞的-ing形式)
Without a word more spoken, she left the meeting room.
她沒再説什麼話就離開了會議室。(without+名詞/代詞+動詞的-ed形式)
The kid feels excited with so many places of interest to visit.
有這麼多的名勝可參觀,小孩很激動。(with+名詞/代詞+動詞不定式)
The boy was walking, with his father ahead.
父親在前,小孩在後走着。(with+名詞/代詞+副詞)
He stood at the door, with a computer in his hand. 或He stood at the door, computer in hand.
他站在門口,手裏拿着一部電腦。(with+名詞/代詞+介詞短語)
With his son so disappointing, the old man felt unhappy.
由於兒子如此令人失望,老人感到很不快樂。(with+名詞/代詞+形容詞)
在with (without) 的複合結構中,多數情況下with 能省略,但without 不能省略。
- each引導的強調型獨立主格
形式為:句子 +複數名詞結尾 , each +介詞短語/形容詞短語/名詞短語/-ing形式/-ed形式
這種獨立主格結構為了強調句尾的複數名詞
如:
Under the restructuring, the huge organization that operates the company's basic businesses will be divided into five groups,each with its own executive.(題源:《GMAT語法全解》白勇著,Page38)
-There being +名詞(代詞)
There being nothing else to do, we went home. 沒有別的事可做,我們就回家了。
There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed. 沒有再要討論的事了,我宣佈散會。
-It being +名詞(代詞)
It being Christmas, the government offices were closed. 由於聖誕節的緣故,政府機關都休息。
It being a holiday, all the shops were shut. 由於今天是假日,所有商店都關門了。

獨立主格結構結構特點

編輯
1)獨立主格結構的邏輯主語與句子的主語不同,它獨立存在。
2)名詞或代詞與後面的分詞,形容詞,副詞,不定式,介詞等是主謂關係或動賓關係。
3)獨立主格結構一般有逗號與主句分開。
舉例:
The test finished, we began our holiday.
= When the test was finished, we began our holiday.
考試結束了,我們開始放假。
The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
= After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
總統被謀殺了,舉國上下沉浸在悲哀之中。
Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow.
如果天氣允許,我們明天去看你。
This done, we went home.
工作完成後,我們才回家。
The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier.
會議結束後,每個人都想早點回家。
He came into the room,his ears red with cold.
他回到了房子裏,耳朵凍壞了。
He came out of the library,a large book under his arm.
他夾着本厚書,走出了圖書館
注:獨立主格結構有時可在其前加上介詞with。
如:
Don’t sleep with the windows open.別開着窗睡覺。
He was lying on the bed with all his clothes on.他穿着衣服躺在牀上。
She came in with a book in her hand.她手裏拿着一本書走了進來。
He fell asleep with the lamp burning.他沒熄燈就睡着了。
I won’t be able to go on holiday with my mother being ill.因為媽媽有病,我無法去度假。
He sat there with his eyes closed.他閉目坐在那兒。
All the afternoon he worked with the door locked.整個下午他都鎖着門在房裏工作。
I can’t go out with all these clothes to wash.要洗這些衣服,我無法出門了。
特殊
當獨立主格與主句主語不同時可有:eg:We walking through the garden,the flowers are beautiful.

獨立主格結構注意事項

編輯
1.獨立主格轉換成狀語從句,當狀語從句的主語與主句的主語不是指同一個對象時,可用獨立主格結構取代狀語從句,但不再保留連詞。如:After class was over (=Class being over / Class over), the students soon left the classroom.下課後,學生很快離開了課室。
2. 不能省略being (having been)的情形:在下列兩種情況下,獨立主格結構中的being(或having been)不能省略。
(1) 獨立主格的邏輯主語代詞時。如:Itbeing Sunday, we went to church.因為是星期天,我們去做了禮拜。
(2)在There being+名詞的結構中。如:There beingno bus, we had to go home on foot.因為沒有公共汽車,所以我們不得不步行回家。
3. 在“名詞(或代詞)+介詞短語”構成的獨立主格結構中,一般不用形容詞性物主代詞和冠詞。如: Miss Smith entered the classroom,book in hand.史密斯小姐走進了課室,手裏拿着一本書。比較with的複合結構。如:Miss Smith entered the classroom,with a book in her hand.
4. 獨立主格結構沒有所有格形式The chief-editor arriving, we began the meeting. 主編來了,我們開始開會。(比較動名詞複合結構。)

獨立主格結構典例分析

編輯
請看下面一道題:
Not far from the school there was a garden, _________ owner seated in it playing chess with his little grandson every afternoon.
A. its B. whose C. which D. that
【分析】此題很容易誤選B,許多同學會認為句中逗號後是一個非限制性的定語從句,whose 在定語從句中用作定語修飾其後的名詞owner。此分析從表面上看,似乎天衣無縫,但實質上是錯的,原因是空格後根本不是一個句子,因為沒有謂語。儘管句中有兩個動詞,但它們都是非謂語動詞。也許有的同學認為,其中的 seated 可視為謂語動詞,但是注意,seat 用作動詞時,它總是及物的,其後要麼接賓語,要麼它就用於被動語態,所以若在 seated 前加上助動詞was,則可以選擇B(當然若將 seated 改為sitting,也應選擇A)。所以此題最佳答案選A。
請再看一個類似的例子:
(1) He wrote a lot of novels, many of _________ translated into foreign languages.
A. it B. them C.which D. that
(2) He wrote a lot of novels, many of _________ were translated into foreign languages.A. it B. them C. which D. that
第(1)應選B,而不能選C,是因為句中的 translated 是過去分詞(非謂語動詞),若選C,則該從句無謂語;第(2)應選C,該句是典型的非限制性定語從句,因為該句修飾的是前面的novels,即指物,所以只能用which做of的賓語,故本題選C。
再請看下面一例:
(3) He wrote a lot of novels, and many of _________ were translated into foreign languages.
A. it B. them C. which D. that
【分析】此題與上面的第(2)題不同,兩句間多了一個並列連詞and,説明這是一個並列句,故應選B,則不能選C。
請做做以下四題:
(1) There I met several people, two of _________ being foreigners.(獨立主格結構)
A. which B. them C. whom D. that
(2) There I met several people, two of _________ were foreigners. (非限制性定語從句
A. which B. whom C. who D. that
(3) There I met several people, and two of _________ were foreigners.(兩個句子)
A. which B. them C. whom D. that
(4)There _________ nothing more to do,Mr.Goodman left for home.(獨立主格結構)
A. was B. being C. to be D. had being
(答案均為B)