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垂懸結構

編輯 鎖定
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所謂垂懸結構(The Dangling Construction)就是一個句子成分,如分詞短語,不定式動詞短語等,找不到被修飾的主語或被修飾的對象不合邏輯,一般叫做“垂懸分詞”,在語法書上叫做“獨立主格結構”。另外,值得注意的是“垂懸分詞”是沒有錯的,要和錯誤的句法“懸垂結構”區別開來。“懸垂結構”是錯誤的句法,應該避免。
中文名
垂懸結構
外文名
The Dangling Construction
類    型
一個句子成分
易錯句法
懸垂結構

目錄

垂懸結構類型

編輯
下面是三種常見的垂懸結構及其改正方法:
⒈垂懸分詞或分詞短語,如:
① Climbing up the hill, several boars were seen.
這句子裏的現在分詞短語(present participial phrase)修飾主語“several boars”是錯的;改正方法有二:
(a)確定是邏輯主語,使句子變成“Climbing up the hill, the explorers saw several boars.”
(b)把現在分詞短語擴大為副詞分句(也稱狀語從句):“When the explorers climbed up the hill, they saw several boars/ several boars were seen.”
⒉垂懸副詞短語,如:
② After putting a shrimp on the hook, the fish began to bite.
這句的副詞短語(adverb phrase)和主語“the fish”有什麼邏輯關係呢?真正的邏輯主語應該是“the fisherman”或“the angler”才對。改正方法和例①同:
(a) After putting a shrimp on the hook, the fisherman found that the fish began to bite.
(b) After the fisherman had put a shrimp on the hook, the fish began to bite.
⒊垂懸不定式動詞短語,如:
③ To write well, a lot of practice is needed.
④ To be a loyal employee, a sense of belonging is a must.
這兩個句子的不定式動詞短語(infinitive phrases)並不能修飾“practice”和“a sense of belonging”,真正的主語必須是“ 人”,如:
(a) To write well, one needs a lot of practice/a person has to practise a lot.
(b) To be a loyal employee, he or she must have a sense of belonging.

垂懸結構其他信息

編輯
上述三類垂懸結構中,第一類發生的頻率最高,必須注意。但是在下列三種情況下,分詞短語是對的,它們並非垂懸結構:
第一,獨立結構(The Absolute Construction,見3月7 日《中英合談》)中的分詞短語有自己的主語,所以不是垂懸結構。例如:
① Such being the case, we can go home now./...it is not wrong to call it a day.
第二,當分詞含有介詞或連詞性質時,它不需要邏輯主語,所以沒有垂懸問題存在。例如:
② Owing to a lack of funds, the project has to be discontinued.
③ Provided that there is sufficient time, everyone can do the job better.
第三,當分詞短語是用來表示説話者的態度或意見時,也不需要邏輯主語,因此也不存在着垂懸問題。例如:
④ Judging from his facial look, the news must have been terrible.
⑤ Taken as a whole, there is nothing wrong with the logic behind that idea